Key No. 3

Reorganising Information and

Applying Learning Techniques


The key to learning is to adapt all information to suit your learning capability.


The Need for Learning Techniques

No words can describe the frustration, anxiety and the difficulties you can experience in learning the wide range of subjects you are confronted with during the various phases of your education and your career.


In everyday life a vast amount of information has to be learned. As a child, you learned through instinct, curiosity and exploration. Later, when growing up, you learned through repetition, instructions, example and guidance with and without threats, punishment or reward. Now as a student or adult the methods of learning are left to your own devices. Large quantities of materials covering a wide range of subjects are imposed on you some in an unplanned and unprepared manner and no guidance is given on how to undertake learning such information.

Different Learning Capabilities

The KEY to learning is to adapt all information to suit your learning capability. Each person has numerous different ways of learning, however, in most cases, these are unstructured and haphazard.

It is important to realise that most learning is achieved through the eyes, ears and other senses and through participative actions to varying degrees. The combined use of these when applied to a subject will dramatically improve your learning ability. Opportunities to transfer information into visual aids for the eyes to develop your photographic memory, into auditory systems for the ears and into participative actions e.g. project work, for personal involvement should always be sought. We all possess particular learning abilities to some degree under these headings. Be aware of your most effective learning abilities for the various subjects you are studying. Develop these and complement them by further stimulating the learning process through the other senses.

Research Results

Your brain is, broadly speaking, divided into two parts, each part complementing the other part and each part processing information in different ways. Generally, the right-hand side is capable of absorbing the big picture, an over-view or framework and is utilised for visualisation, art, music and 3-D models, while the left-hand side is used for learning sequential and step-by-step material such as languages, logic and analytical subjects. Both sides, however, should be utilised in parallel to give you the greatest potential for learning. Your learning ability will dramatically improve through the utilisation of both sides of your brain through the stimulation received from the eyes, ears and the other senses.

A Positive Attitude to Learning

Coupled with the above integrated learning approaches should be a positive attitude to learning, a belief in yourself through recalling your achievements and successes to date and a motivation to succeed arising from a desire to participate and contribute. Negative attitudes arising from parental, peer group and teacher pressures as well as fear of failure or motivation through selfish desires should be avoided.


Stimulation should be integrated into your learning techniques through active participation in field work, study circles, experiments, educational tours, museum and gallery visits, debates etc., as these external influences will assist in the learning process. In your immediate study environment, stimulation can be obtained from the success of the learning techniques applied. At the subliminal level the learning process can be assisted through rhythm, rhyme and music as these are organised patterns which can be applied or linked to some particular subjects. Music, particularly instrumental, stimulates the right-hand side of the brain, providing rhythmic associations and a relaxed mental state for learning. Remember how fast you learned your nursery rhymes and the melodies of current top-ten.

Learning Techniques

Next you should examine all the learning techniques and self-teaching aids that are available and select those most suited to your learning aptitudes. The most suitable techniques and aids for the various subjects you are learning can be selected after you have applied a variety of them and discovered the benefits of one over the other depending on your aptitudes.


The following is a wide range of techniques and their applications which should be used to improve your learning ability. All the information to be learned should be adapted to suit your learning aptitudes by using one or more of these techniques and various examples are given to assist you where appropriate.


Additional learning techniques and those which you may wish to contribute can be added to this list from time to time.

1. Key Points

Colour highlight or underline the key points the author wants to make or those you want to select or extract as answers to typical or possible examination questions. Key points should then be transcribed or summarised concisely into your notes. This technique will minimise the re-reading all of the original subject matter. Key points should be indicated by a "*" in your notes.

2. Ancillary Points
These points should be highlighted using a different colour or underlined using dashes. However as in the case of the key points it is recommended that such points be transcribed or summarised concisely into your notes. Ancillary points should be indicated by a "-" in your notes.

3. Schematics
These are organised patterns in a family tree format and are suitable for linking or grouping key points and their ancillary points together diagrammatically. Schematics are particularly suitable for depicting complex subjects clearly and concisely ranging from the scientific and technical to the academic and topical. Schematics are anatomical structures of a subject showing the subject matter, key points, ancillary points, subject framework, functions, relational links and results.

4. Tables (Numerical)
These are suitable for displaying in an ordered manner related but poorly presented numbers, times, dates, data, figures etc. Time spent in formulating such material into tabulated formats will minimise your learning time. Remember tables are like visual filing cabinets. Where would we be without calendars, conversion tables, schedules, timetables, timelines etc.

5. Classifications (Items)

These are organised groupings under specific headings. They are particularly suitable for grouping similar names, places, objects and common items together in an ordered fashion. As most text books are written in narrative form you should continually watch out for opportunities to categorise such information. Consider the ease at which information is provided in atlases, dictionaries, reference books and encyclopaedias and then apply the same approach to the information you are collecting

6. Charts And Graphs
Relational material should be transposed into charts or graphs. Remember "a picture is worth a thousand words". Typical of these are bar, line, pie and pictograph charts. Some of the less familiar chart types are as follows: comparison, flow, histogram, intercept, process, schedugraph and trend charts. As your mind relies on relationships, in many instances, the technique of charting and graphing will be of great benefit to you.

7. The Big Picture Technique

In this technique the framework within which the subject matter resides is defined. An era, a setting, a time span, a situation etc. are all boundaries which can form a framework where details of the subject can be anchored. Always have in mind the objective to determine the theme of a poem, the plot of a play, the outcome of a historic event, the result of a scientific process etc. as this will create the framework into which details can be inserted and gaps in your information can be highlighted. Trying to collate and collect numerous details without such an overall framework can be difficult.

8. Missing Links

Disjointed information, instances, unrelated data, partial or incomplete information are all difficult to learn. One of the techniques your mind uses to learn is by associating and linking information together. It is essential that you obtain the missing links in your information so as to create a coherent picture. Then summarise concisely all the information into key points and ancillary points to facilitate the learning process. These points should then be transcribed into your notes for revision purposes.


9. Synopsis Or Summary
If all else fails you can always resort to this time and tested technique. Applying a set of basic questions, i.e. WHAT?, WHERE?, WHEN?, WHO? and HOW? to the subject being studied, researched or just read for pleasure and then applying WHY?, WHAT ELSE?, and WHAT SHOULD? to those answers will provide the main theme, key points and the relevant information you require and eliminate the camouflage of superfluous material.

10. Mind Maps

Mind Maps generate and display information in an interactive and graphic format. They stimulate your full creative potential, encourage research and participation and provide an evolving road map picture of any subject. Mind Maps develop your learning capabilities, promote clearer thinking and enhance your decision making. At any point in time they provide a comprehensive picture, an overview or a detailed aspect of a subject and show the interfaces, missing links in your information and the creative options open to you.


To create a Mind Map locate the coloured highlighted subject matter in the centre of the page then draw flowing graded lines from the subject. Indicate on these lines the headings of primary information. Attach to these lines further branch lines with their associated secondary information. Lines and associated information should be the same length.


Mind Maps are the registered trademark of the Buzan Organisation and are used with enthusiastic permission. For further information contact: www

11. "Off By Heart"

This technique has often more correctly been called "break my heart". Numerous methods are used ranging from vocalising, repetition, a start-stop-restart method, self-interrogation, tears etc. but all to no avail. The way to succeed is to use key words and [SENSE FRAMES]. However in this situation all the words will eventually become key words. Initially it will be necessary to edit the text into [SENSE FRAMES] either mentally or visually and select key words in those frames. You can commence learning the prose or poetry by learning each [SENSE FRAME] using your own words with whatever key words you have selected from within that frame. Gradually replace your own words with more words from the text until the [SENSE FRAME] is learned using all the words as key words.



12. Cue Words and Cue Phases -latterly selected and sequentially linked.

Trying to learn facts, anecdotes, stories, articles, editorials, reports, essays, speeches, plays etc. can be difficult but with the use of cue words or cue phrases this problem can be easily overcome.
The technique recommended is to select and record particular cue words or phrases which latterly convey clearly to you the theme about each stage of the text being studied. These cue words or phases must then be linked sequentially together by association so that the total text can be learned. Cue cards or your note book can be used to record this information for revision and for use at a future date.



13. Hook Method
In this learning technique items to be remembered are linked with a fixed set of words –hook words by association. The hook words rhyme or link with a range of sequential numbers.


  Items to be remembered          

Seq.                            No.                                       

Hook Words                  






As first prize





Tied to pendulum










Jammed open















Falling from





Another fruit










Glass screen





Delivering itself





12 Handkerchiefs




Black cat

Riding one




Too weak

Going slow










Long distance



Memorise the sequential numbers and their associated hook words. The items to be remembered are taken in sequence and are linked to each hook word using an appropriate association. The more ridiculous the association the easier it will be to remember the items in sequence or out of sequence.

This method is suitable for learning single, unconnected items.  Try this for your next party piece.

14. Cartoon Strips and Sketches
We have all followed the escapades of our favourite hero or heroine in the weekly comics purchased with well earned pocket money or "swapped" for older editions. Cartoon strips can also be used simply and successfully to depict and trace the theme of a poem, to display the phases and structure of prose, to illustrate a period of history or to show the life cycle of a parasite. The applications are endless and you do not have to be an artist to produce thumb nail sketches or create match stick people in a cartoon strip form. However, the sketching of simple outline shapes of animals, objects and people should be taught to all students. Concise phrases should then be added to each strip as dialogue or as an explanation.

15. Word Pictures - for better understanding
This is a technique whereby illustrations, diagrams, charts, pictures, figures etc. are labelled, explained, and elaborated with appropriate words and information. Don’t be afraid to add your own words or to over-write and modify them to suit your needs. The atlas is perhaps one of the best word picture examples available. Create your own word pictures using simple sketches and add in the appropriate words and text to bring them to life.

16. Spelling Techniques
Conventional learning using rote and writing out techniques can be enhanced using a range of other methods. Visualise words in a graphical context using subjects and objects that interest you will assist the spelling process. Words can also be placed in appropriate categories, classifications and in situations that appeal to you. Derive the prefix, root or suffix of words to facilitate learning e.g. “in - cred - ible” Remember rules and conventions e.g. “i before e except after c” but not for the word “science”. Devise your own memory aids e.g. from first principles please, where? there !, accommodation for 2, their heir and the principal’s pal. Keep a list of words you find difficult to spell, don’t depend on the spell check. Give yourself 100% when you are successful.

17. Learning a Language
In addition to the formal methods of learning a language through listening, reading, writing, memorising, conversing, foreign visits and language laboratories some of the techniques listed in the previous sections can be applied here. Creating personalised word pictures or selecting words, lists, sayings and phrases associated with subjects, objects and situations that interest you will make it easier to learn a language. The following techniques are also invaluable in learning new words. Seek out and match foreign words that are similar to words in your own language e.g. Liber -------- liberty Find hook or linking words that will bridge the gap between the new words and your own words e.g. Terra -------- territory ------- land Use the dictionary to combine and compile families of foreign words not necessarily with the same meaning but with the same roots e.g. Champ, champagne, champetre, champignon, champion.

18. Dynamic Frames
The previous display techniques are static in format. This particular technique is based on dynamically displaying the interaction between interrelated parts of the subject being studied through the use of a series of transparency or computer generated frames. These frames can show various phases, or a single frame can be designed or programmed to incorporate a number of phases. Such frames are particularly suitable for explaining anatomical, scientific, evolutionary, technical and geographical subjects where different stages of development, action, interaction and progress occur. A wide range of software is now available to explain and display a variety subjects and with the back-up of the internet, encyclopaedias on-line and educational CD's or DVD's there is little excuse for not understanding or being bored with subjects.

19. Visual Symbols
Characteristics, phases, constituents, actions etc. can usually be represented by simple visual forms using hieroglyphics. The ancient Chinese and Egyptians used symbols to create a unique form of picture writing. All around you there are numerous symbols for example at airports, motorways, sports complexes and supermarkets. With a little imagination the scope is unlimited. Such symbols can be used as a form of shorthand where necessary. The following are some examples generated from the keyboard:


& = Human, @ = Animal, ^^ = Bird, >>> = Fish, vvv = Vegetable

~ = Liquid, O = Gas, [] = Solid

* =  Light, H eat, ::: = Ice, Snow, Frost,  z = Power,

+ = First Aid, x = Danger

< = Action, H = Sport

J = Happy, L = Sad, :-@ = Shocked, :-o = Hungry, :-/ = Confused. Read at 90’. (Emoticons)   

20. Abbreviations

Make use where possible of standard abbreviations. A quick scan through your dictionary will give you all the common abbreviations for example: e.g., i.e., N.B., etc., P.S., Mr., Ms. You can also create your own abbreviations.

Next you can adopt the numerous mobile TXT abbreviations for your note taking. Having studied all the KEYS in this site e.g.  I  c  u  r  abl  2  xl  @  d  xams.


21. Acronyms  
Various opportunities exist to skillfully select from some material to be learned the initial letters of the key words and form them into a word, existing or otherwise, which can be realistic or nonsensical. You can create some new words to suit your requirements. Typical examples of this technique are as follows:


Nylon (New York and London), QANTAS, laser, Nato, radar, NEWS (North, South, East and West) and Alphabet (Alpha Beta).  


22. Other Mnemonics

Creating a short sentence or verse can assist in remembering particular information, The following are the generally known examples but you can easily create some new ones to add to the list:


Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are the planets of our solar system. Taking the initial letter of each planet creates the word "mvemjsun" which does not mean much in this instance, but by allocating new words to these letters the following sentence can easily be remembered "Men Very Easily Make Jugs Serve Useful Needs".


A trigonometric example for remembering the Sine, Cosine and Tangent of an angle is "Oliver Had A Handful Of Apples" and the sentence “Ring Out Your Great Bells In Victory”  will help you to remember the colours of the rainbow.  The word VeINs helps us to remember that they carry blood back INto the heart. Horizontal contains the word horizon, THEIR contains heir and all the Continents start and end with the same letter.

Perhaps the best known examples are “ 30 days hath September…………….”  and “Spring forward Fall backwards” which reminds us how to adjust our clocks for the biannual time change.


A lesser known one is “how I wish I could determine”  which by using the number of letters in each of the words gives the value of Pi = 3.14159

23. Labyrinth Guide Through The Maze Of Mathematics

This technique is particularly suitable for solving mathematical questions. The principles here are as follows:


1. Knowledge of the applicable mathematical concepts is necessary
2. Clearly understand the question
3. Decipher all the facts, parameters and the problem.
4. Test for relationships using interactive problem solving techniques*
5. Select and apply
6. Derive solution

7. Verify

                                                 *Interactive Problem Solving Techniques                                       

























XYZ Co-ordinates


















Remember most mathematical questions look like labyrinths initially and contain many interdependent though not apparent elements which may require different mathematical approaches for resolution. Most examination questions are in this format and are not just variations of text book examples so be prepared to persevere.


Research rewards, perseverance inspires.

24. Mathematical Applications, Interpretations And Images

For the resolution of higher levels of mathematical problems a clear understanding of their applications in real life will clarify the concepts involved, and typical practical examples depicting such applications should be compiled for each category. Tangible examples must be kept in your mind when attempting to resolve such questions.

Attempts to resolve problems concerning matrices, vectors, series, differentiation, integration etc. without a practical understanding of their application can be unsuccessful and result in frustration and a waste of time. The use of series to determine compound interest and installment repayments, the applications of differentiation as a rate measurer of flows, expansions, velocities and accelerations and the use of integration as a means of determining areas beneath curves, volumes of solids of revolutions and moments of inertia are typical practical examples.

Charting, sketching or plotting information provided in questions into  2D or 3D will greatly assist you in developing the correct answer as you interact with the diagram and your thinking process is given a visual stimulation. Vectors and matrices should be seen to be believed. Knowing that x + y = 5 is a line, y*= 4ax is a parabola, r* = x* + y* is a circle (* = 2), y = Sin x is a wave curve etc., is more beneficial than blindly accepting them as equations. Maths can be "as simple as pie" when you consider that by dividing the circumference of the plate by the diameter you get pi. The old foolscap sheet is based on the golden ratio of 13 inches by 8 inches, which when folded will give you an infinite number of square shapes of decreasing size.                                                                      

25. Examples
Much of your learning has been by example. In most text books there are carefully selected examples, definitions, axioms, theorems and laws which should be studied in detail and understood fully. The basic fundamentals contained in such information will be of immense value when you need to understand and learn more complex information. In addition to the examples given at the beginning of each chapter you should compile your own examples selecting the more difficult questions which have been resolved by you, your colleagues, teacher or lecturer. Many of these questions will incorporate complex variations of the basic examples given at the start of each chapter and include the application of other techniques learned from previous chapters. These types of questions and answers will consolidate your learning and understanding process and should be kept as part of your revision material. Never miss a chance to examine an example but learn by good example.

26. Audio Tapes and Mini Discs
Tapes and discs can be obtained nowadays to cover a wide range of subjects, particularly literary and language subjects. You can play them while travelling, walking or carrying out some domestic chores. They are considered a successful way of learning because of their subliminal effects. Making tapes of certain selected material for playback is relatively easy with most domestic tape recorders and the skilful use of pocket size tape recorders for note taking can be of immense value and can save precious time. Your local library is a useful source of audio material.

27. Films, Videos, Software, TV Programmes, Distance Learning, Open University and E-Learning
The technique of “chalk and talk” as a primary method of teaching is extremely limited. The technique is too subjective, restrictive, difficult to read or copy and impersonal. The modern teaching techniques now available broaden the perspective on subjects, create greater objectivity and cater for different learning abilities so that material can be absorbed and assimilated in a range of different ways and at different learning rates. These techniques are visually, audibly and coherently better and easy to copy or record. All subjects are available now in some pre-prepared projectable and interactive form. The range of software covering all subjects, for all ages and all aptitudes is phenomenal and with the availability of computers in schools and homes the facilities for learning are remarkable. Various institutes of education are making greater use of these systems and are thus broadening their teaching techniques and the range of subjects offered to students. With the advent of distant learning, the Open University, E-learning and educational T.V. programmes now available to the home the whole approach to teaching and learning is being changed dramatically. So click-on today to a more user friendly form of learning.

28. Data Bases

Data bases are usually associated with computers but equally well there are numerous non-computer information sources. Your text books are data bases in themselves. An encyclopaedia, an atlas or library book are other forms of data bases. However with the vast amount of information available on every subject and aspect of study, work and life the most practical method for storing such information is in computer data bases, CD's and DVD's. Access to this information is through the computer. Greater use is now also being made of centralised information systems with the information required being downloaded through the Internet and intranets. Ability to access such information is now an essential skill for students and business persons.


29. Reservoir of Facts

All students should possess a reservoir of facts. The names of the Seven Wonders of the World, the Continents, Oceans, Highest Mountains, Largest Islands, Longest Rivers, Greatest Lakes, Largest Countries and Cities, Currencies, colours of main National Flags, the Planets etc. are typical general knowledge items. Other useful information should be on how to locate the North Star or Southern Cross, the main Constellations and the North, South, East and West directions.


No student should leave Primary School without knowing and naming seven modern wonders of their world. Being able to name seven of each of the following would also be of benefit: birds, farm animals, household pets, zoo, animals, trees, leaves, flowers, weeds, fruits, cereals and vegetables.


Additional information should be accumulated from time to time e.g. how fast do you walk, jog, run, cycle ?, how long is your garden, your road, your football field ?, what area is your garden, your sitting room, your playing pitch?, do you know what a millimeter, centimeter, meter and kilometer looks like ?, how high is your door, your room, your house, the garden trees, the street lamps, the church spire?, do you know what a litre is and what a kilogram is? As a senior or mature student would you recognise or know the main works of the famous composers, artists, authors, scientists and inventors?, or do you know your local history?.


Be curious and inquisitive about everyday things around you and wonder “WHY?” things are as they are. This approach will develop your ability to research and link information together and develop your skills for remembering and creating new ideas and opinions.


Be an “expert” on one of your favourite subjects.

30. 3-D Displays  (Static)
Most of your learning is from material that is in one or two dimensions. The use of 3-D displays or models can be of immense value in bringing a new dimension to learning. Much of your childhood learning has been from objects about you. You can use a wide range of models and modelling material, available cheaply, to display and create many items which will stimulate your learning. The use of scrapped material, spare parts, cut-aways etc. can also be of great benefit where applicable. Remember the nature table in your junior classes or the mechanical and electrical junk stored in your garage. Think of all the creations you made with that construction set. Visit any educational supplies store to see the vast array of models and educational equipment that is now available.

31. Dynamic Models And Experiments

The results of experiments and tests seen in the school laboratory will always be remembered to some degree. Greater use of this learning technique should always be considered where possible. Dynamic models and experiments should be accompanied with all the sensory outputs e.g. sound, light, force, temperature, motion and odour to make them more interesting. The school laboratories usually fulfill all the curricula requirements but you can also create some of these tests and experiments easily and cheaply once enough ingenuity is applied. When you consider that "thrust" can be illustrated by the use of a balloon, "aerodynamic lift" by a paper airfoil and a hair dryer, the siphon effect with a piece of garden hose and the four seasons using a globe and flash lamp the scope for simulation is endless. One of the greatest experiments can easily be illustrated by rolling a marble across an inclined plane to create the elliptical path experienced by the planets because of the big bang and gravity.


There are many simple experiments that can be carried out to illustrate the discoveries of Pythagoras, Archimedes, Galileo, Boyle, Charles and Newton. Numerous books and kits are available on dynamic model making and home experiments all of which will bring a new dimension to your learning. How about your own laboratory!

32. Programmed Learning

In using this technique the subject is broken down into all the important elements. Each element is then given as a discrete piece of information and is accompanied by a set of questions to test your understanding and learning progress. Answers, marks and ratings are also given at various intervals. Programmes are designed to lead from the basic information to the more complex aspects of a subject in a gradual fashion. Programmed learning is usually self-instructional and self-pacing. It would not be practical for you to design such programmes but most subjects can be obtained either in text book, microfilm and video format. One of the main advantages of this technique is that a subject can be learned very quickly as most of the interrogative and research work has been done by the programmer and the key points have been selected and highlighted. In an age where so much verbosity is attached to information and where so much time is lost in seeking out the key points, greater use could be made of this technique. While this technique is still being used it is gradually being superceded by C.A.T.

33. Computer Aided Training
As in the case of programmed learning the techniques used here are similar. The main advantage of this technique however is that it is more interactive and user friendly and from an equipment point of view most home computers can meet the equipment requirement needs. A wide range of computer educational programmes are now available and are continually being updated and developed to meet course requirements. Scope also exists for schools, colleges etc. to create their own programmes and make them available to students. There are many suitable software packages available and designed for this purpose incorporating the necessary data base capabilities, editing facilities and graphic enhancements required for animation. It is now generally accepted that computer aided training is one of the most effective methods of learning because of the interactive capabilities it provides.

34. Projects For Individuals
Greater use of project work must be encouraged in all areas of education. The opportunity to integrate subjects with reality e.g. history with current affairs, geography with your locality, business studies with your local supermarket or factory should not be missed and should be undertaken to develop the application of what you are learning to the real world. Projects requiring research in the local library, historic sites, museums, galleries and gardens etc. should be actively undertaken. Submitting project work for end of year exhibitions or competitions should also be a priority.

35. Projects For Groups
There are added benefits from this form of project work where the "expert" for each particular aspect of the project transmits his knowledge, research and experience to the other participants and the group learn the skills and benefits of co-operation and contribution.


36. Simulators
High technology is making greater use of simulators to impart knowledge and skill. To train astronauts, airline pilots, tank commanders, fighter pilots, aircraft engineers, ship captains etc. to master and effectively handle high cost and sophisticated equipment, use is made of simulators. These can simulate "real conditions" in a controlled environment. The simulators are full size work centres or cockpits and are fully equipped and energised to create operating, alert, malfunction, combat and accident situations. All the necessary dynamic effects are added for realism.


Opportunities however to learn by this technique are few and far between and perhaps the nearest you can expect to encountering the exhilarating experience of a simulator is to visit a planetarium or the local car school training centre. Perhaps the day is not too far away when all your learning will be carried out in some form of simulator where all aspects of a subject will be focused on you and your learning time and and various experiences will be compressed into milliseconds.


37. Interactive Science Museums

Interactive science museums are the next best thing to providing the simulator experience for students.

There is a world wide growth and demand for such museums as the benefits are incalculable in  motivating students to follow technical and scientific careers and in informing and exposing the public to the latest developments. In these museums students get the opportunity to interact with a wide variety of technical and scientific projects and experiments thereby increasing their interests and curiosity. Why not plan a trip to the nearest ISM.


38. The Searching Question
As most subjects are taught or presented in a chronological order they give a false sense of security to the student who feels that examination questions on the subject can be answered easily once the syllabus has been completed and revised. Unfortunately this is not the case. Examination questions usually require extensive student interaction in the form of analyses, evaluations and deductions and an ability to see interrelationships within the complete subject in order to carry out extrapolations, differentiations and resolutions. Early undertaking of examination questions as distinct from end of chapter questions should be incorporated into your revision programme in order to develop your examination skills. Such questions will rapidly improve and consolidate your learning and resolution  abilities. However be aware that examiners can change their approach to subjects and to the questions they set. So be ready for the unexpected searching question and confound.

Application and Dissemination

Many other techniques for learning exist and all the above can be interlinked in various permutations to suit your requirements. The wide range of techniques available should be used to provide the broadest perspective on a subject. The important point to remember is that all information that has to be assimilated should be compiled into a coherent fashion and modified to suit your own learning ability. It is essential that you discover your particular learning aptitudes, develop them and apply the most suitable techniques to the subject being studied.


Teachers, parents and all those charged with imparting information, knowledge and skill should be particularly conscious of the need to reorganise these requirements to suit their students' abilities and to make them aware of all the learning techniques that are available.



Key Points
1. There Is A Need For Learning Techniques
2. Be Aware Of Your Different Learning Abilities
3. Research Into Learning Aptitudes Is Ongoing
4. Develop A Positive Attitude To Learning
5. Stimulate Your Learning Abilities
6. Why Learning Techniques Are Essential
7. Apply These Techniques Consistently
8. Disseminate The Benefits To Others

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