The primary areas of operation of the navy (Bundesmarine)
in the event of war are the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Until 1990 the
navy's mission had been to block the Baltic approaches on behalf of NATO
to prevent the deployment of the Soviet Baltic Fleet in the North Sea and
the Atlantic Ocean.The political changes that unfolded in
1990 enabled the navy to reduce its concentration on the Baltic Sea and
northern flank, shifting from defending against a tangible Warsaw Pact
threat to preparing for a broader spectrum of maritime defense missions
and tasks beyond home waters. The deployment of mine countermeasure
vessels to the Mediterranean for NATO during the Persian Gulf crisis in
1990 and to the Persian Gulf after hostilities broke out in 1991, as well
as Germany's participation in monitoring the naval blockade against Serbia
in 1992, undoubtedly foreshadow other possible requirements distant from
German coastal waters.Proportionately, the cuts imposed on the navy in response
to the improved security situation in Europe have been the greatest among
the three services. The ship inventory will be reduced to nearly half by
the year 2005. German capabilities are being improved by the introduction
of four `Type 212' submarines with air-independent propulsion.
These are bigger than previous classes and will enter
service from 2004. Of surface ships, the `K130' corvettes, although
designed principally for coastal duties, are large enough to operate
further away from home if necessary and emphasise a trend towards `blue
water' operations. The introduction of the first of two new `Berlin' class
support ships in 2001 will significantly improve upon current capabilities
in this respect. Looking ahead, there is speculation that a future class
of support ships might be based on the Netherlands `Rotterdam' class
amphibious ships, perhaps upon the same lines as the new British Landing
The new `Sachsen' class frigates, the first of which
was launched in January 2001, are to replace the ageing `Lutjens' class
from 2002. The rotary winged assets of the German Naval Aviation are due
to be replaced by the NH-90 NFH. A total of 38 of the Helicopters are
required to enter service after 2008. As a stop-gap, seven Super Lynx
Mk.88A have been delivered with the surviving Lynx Mk.88s also brought
upto this standard. Ten new MPA are the main urgent priority for the GNA ,
to replace most of its existing fleet of 18 Brequet Atlantics.
Ships of the German Navy :
Surface Combatants :
-Sachsen Class (Type F124)
The Sachsen Class (F124) is Germany's Air Defence Frigate
being built by ARGE F124, a consortium consisting of Blohm and Voss as the
leading yard, Howaldtwerke-Deutsche Werft and Thyssen Nordseewerke. The
frigates are being built under the Trilateral Frigate Agreement, signed by
the Netherlands, Germany and Spain which provides cooperation in national
construction of the frigates in each country. The ship’s medium and long range anti-air missiles are the Raytheon
Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) and the Standard Missile SM2111-A which
are fired from a VLS Mk41 thirty-two cell launcher.
The F124 has two Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM), Mk 31 launchers and
two four-cell Harpoon missile launchers. The RAM missile from Raytheon and RAM Systems GmbH, is a fire and forget
missile which provides short range defence against incoming anti-ship
missiles including sea-skimming missiles The ship is fitted with two
triple Mk 32 torpedo launchers and also has helicopter-borne long range
lightweight torpedoes. The flight deck and hangar accommodate two NH90
-Bradenburg Class Frigate (Type 123)
The Type 123 Brandenburg Class frigates were ordered in June
1989 to replace the Hamburg class. The frigates are primarily tasked with
anti-submarine operations, but they also contribute to anti-air defence,
the tactical command of group forces and surface operations. The ships
form part of the Wilhelmshaven-based 6th frigate squadron.The all-steel
ship has stealth features, extra space for Task Group personnel, and fin
stabilisers. It is designed to carry two AgustaWestland Sea Lynx Mk 88
helicopters and a rigid inflatable boat for boarding operations.
The federal armaments procurement agency, the BWB ordered four Type 123
frigates for the German Navy at an estimated systems price of US$363m.The
ship is armed with two twin launchers for MM 38 Exocet surface-to-surface
missiles.A Lockheed Martin Mk 41 Mod 3 vertical launch system for 16 NATO
Seasparrow medium-range surface-to-air missiles is fitted.The ship also
has two 21-cell launchers for the RAM (Rolling Airframe) short-range
surface-to-air missile.The vessel is equipped with one Otobreda 76mm/62
Mk-75 main gun.
-Bremen Class Frigate (Type 122)
The German Navy has eight Bremen Class frigates designed and
built by Bremer Vulkan in the 1980s. The ship's primary role is for
operation within the NATO and German task forces. The ship is designed
primarily for anti-surface warfare missions with strong anti-air and
anti-submarine warfare capability.
The Bremen has two four-cell Boeing Harpoon missile launchers. Harpoon
(RGM-84) is an anti-surface missile, with active radar seeker and range of
130km. The ship's point defence system is based on the medium range NATO
Seasparrow and the short range RAM (Rolling Airframe) missile.The ship
accommodates two 4.5t class helicopters, the Sea Lynx Mark 88.
- Type K 130 Corvette
The specification of the new Class 130 generation of
corvettes for the German Navy, defined on a competitive basis, has been
finalised with the discision of the German Ministry of Defence to open
contractual negotiations with the ARGE K130 for the building of 5
corvettes.The design concept of the ARGE K130 is based on the development
of B+V's MEKO® Class A frigates and corvettes - a concept that
has attracted significant interest on the international market - and on
the latest FLW design concepts for export orders.
In important fields of technology, the developments that were begun for
the Class 124 frigates, have been consistently followed through, for
example in the area of on-board automation, in the computer and network
technology and in the software for weapons and guidance systems.
In addition, the K130 incorporates numerous new developments and
innovative proposals. As an example, the K130 will be the first naval ship
in the world to be fitted with 2 drones for area reconnaissance and
monitoring beyond the radar horizon. As far as the radar and infrared
signature is concerned, the K130 has stealth properties. This permits
deployment in coastal waters in particular within the remit of
multinational rapid response forces.
- U-206A Class submarine
Those altogether 12 Submarines of the class 206 were activated between
1973 and 1975. In the comparison with submarines of other nations the German
submarines with about 500 tons of displacement are the smallest armed
submarine, which operates world-wide. Due to their small size and the good depth
control characteristics they are particularly suitable for the shallow water application and can maneuver
underwater in depths of
approx. 20 meters. The 206 Class is stationed in Eckernfoerde. They belong to 1. and 3.
8x 533 mm STN
Atlas DMÀ3 torpedo (cable-guided)
capacity (GRP container with 12 mines)
- U-212 submarine
The U212 submarine is capable of long distance submerged
passage to the area of operation. The German Navy has ordered four of the
submarines, the first ship will be commissioned in the year 2004. U31, the
first of class, is expected to begin sea trials in October 2002.
There are six torpedo tubes in two groups of three. Type 212 is
equipped with a water ram expulsion system for torpedo launch. The
submarine is equipped with the DM2A4 heavyweight torpedo weapon system
from STN Atlas Elektronik.The Type 212 is equipped with a highly
integrated Command & Weapons Control System which interfaces with
sensors, weapons and navigation system. EADS and Thales Defence Ltd have
been awarded a contract to develop the FL1800U electronic warfare system
for the German and Italian navies' U212 submarines. The 1800U is a
submarine version of the FL1800 S-II, which is in service on the
Brandenburg and Bremen class frigates.
Fast Missile Ships :
-Gepard-Klasse (type 143A)
units are further developed on the basis of
the Albatross class and they have instead of a second 76mm-Gun , the RAM
missile system. This serves as an improved protection from opposing
anti-ship missiles. In place of the torpedo armament they possess a largely
dimensioned mine putting capacity. The on board sensors present
correspond to a large extent to those of the Albatross class, but it has
however more modern and more far-reaching
possibilities of the electronic conduct of operations.
Armament Includes :
1x 76 mm of OTO
Melara cannon/62Mk 75
missile Aerospatiale mm of 38 EXOCET
1x GDC RAM
(Rolling Airframe Missile) 21 cells
-Albatross-Klasse (type 143)
Beside the armament
of missiles, typical for German Missile Boats , these units have wire-guided
long-range heavyweight torpedoes. The fire control systems permits the
fight against five targets at the same time and can launch radar dummy targets and infrared decoys.
Just as the other missile boats the Albatross class are
also able to make contact with other warships,
naval headquarters as well as the AWACS early warning aircraft with radio
data transmission connection in real time.
2x 76 mm of OTO
Melara of cannons/62 compact
missile Aerospatiale mm of 38 EXOCET
2x 533 mm of
torpedoes AEG Seeal (cable-steered)
Support Ships :
-Tender Elbe (type 404)
The task of the Elbe
Class Tenders exists mainly in the supply of fuel, water, food, spare parts and
ammunition for naval ships operating in the deep Ocean . Thereby the sea
endurance of the supplied boats can be substantially extended.
that the Tenders
with their garbage disposal mechanism and waste water processing facility
ensure a environmental fair disposal of the waste produced in the
Armament Includes :
2x 20mm Rhine
- Berlin Class Combat Support Ship (type 702)
"Berlin" is the first of two combat support ships currently
being built by Flensburg-based Schiffbau Gesellschaft mbH & Co.KG and
the Lürssen Werft GmbH & Co. Bremen. The ships have a length of 176
meters, a water displacement of approximately 20,000 tons and 140
permanent crew members. The
combat support ships of the Berlin Class are the largest ships of the German navy. The
main task of the Berlin
class exists in the supply of German ships in high lake. Thus their sea endurance
can be increased from approx..21 days to 45 sea-days. The first ship of
this class, BERLIN, was finished in September 2000. The Second ship ,
Frankfurt/Main, was laid down in May 2002. They will be both
stationed in Wilhemshaven.
EADS affiliate Dornier will be delivering the marine version of its
mobile 'TransHospital' field hospital also to the second combat
support ship of the German Navy. The DM10 million so-called Marine
Emergency Rescue Centre (MERC) contract was announced here at IDEX 2001.
MERC consists of 26 special containers for the treatment of sick and
wounded personnel. The containers can be erected as a two-storey
construction on the main deck or on land in crisis areas.
Aircraft & Helicopters :
Navy TORNADOs are mainly tasked for maritime strike attack
and tactical air support of maritime operations in multiple roles like
Maritime-Attack, Reconnaissance and Minelaying. For these missions the
aircrafts can be equipped with the KORMORAN anti-ship missile and the
Anti-Radiation-Missile HARM Anti-Radiation missiles.Lessons learned from
previous operations and missions will be the basis for the Tornado
short- and mid-life modular upgrade programs concerning "Combat
Efficiency Enhancement". The main operational task of this element is
to improve weapon system performance and accuracy, while enhancing the
aircraft's ability to operate in a multi-national environment.
They are designed to support and enhance the long-term
operational role GNY Tornado To keep up with these increasing
requirements over the next two decades, all remaining GAF and GNY Tornado
combat aircraft will undergo a further update program during the upcoming
years, the so-called ASSTA 2 (Avionics System Software Tornado in Ada)
whereby software as well as hardware updates go hand in hand. Two new
weapon integrations are also part of the "Combat Efficiency
Upgrade". Both weapons, the Modular Stand Off Weapon TAURUS and the
HARM PNU (High Speed Anti Radiation Missile with Precision Navigation
Unit), are still in development.
Peace Peak (SIGINT version)
In 1996 MFG 3 received the first of 18 Brequet Br.1150
Atlantic maritime patrol aircraft. The majority of the Atlantics act as a
long-range reconaissance aircraft for aerial patrol operations, shadowing
threat aircraft and ships and intercepting target data transmissions. They
also autonomously conduct anti-submarine warfare ,as well as co-operate
with friendly submarines.
Operating alongside the standard maritime patrol Atlantics are the five
surviving (from 6 converted) Peace Peek Elint platforms. The conversion
displays several external differences including additional radomes
under under the fuselage and modifed wing tips. The Atlantic maritime patrol aircraft are now over 30 years
old and the search for a successor has begun in co-operation with Italy,
which has the same requirement.
- Super Sea Lynx Mk.88A
Severe delays to deliveries of the NH-90, mean that the
German Navy has had to keep the Lynx in service longer than anticipated,
and even had to order an additional seven Mk.88As in 1996 for the 'Bradenburg'
frigates. The lynx Mk.88A fleet will total 24 in 2003, by when the older
17 Mk.88 helicopters will have undergone life extension programme to bring
them to Mk.88A standard.
The Mk.88A features several improvements as compared to the older Mk.88
helicopters. Super Lynx Mk.88A is equipped with a 360° scan radar and the
BAE SYSTEMS Seaspray Mark 3000 mounted in the chin fairing under the nose.
By relocating the radar there is room for a moveable infrared sensor
on the nose. For this, the Navy selected the Marconi Multi Sensor Turret.
It is now possible to employ Sea Skua missiles from the helicopters. They
have a range of more than 15 kilometres and are supposed to offer a high
probability of impact even when used against small targets. The navigation
system has been improved by integrating a GPS receiver.A more durable
rotor head and new composite blades with specially formed tips allow for a
higher maximum take-off weight.
-NH 90 NFH
The NATO Frigate Helicopter (NFH) is one of two versions of
the NH90 twin-engine multi-role helicopter being developed by NH
Industries. The German Navy has ordered 38 NH-90 NFHs. The primary
missions of the NH90 NFH helicopter are in the autonomous anti submarine
warfare (ASW) and anti-surface ship warfare (AsuW) role. Secondary roles
include anti-air warfare (AAW), vertical replenishment (VERTREP), search
and rescue (SAR), troop transport and mine laying.
The cockpit has five 8in x 8in colour multifunction liquid crystal
displays for flight, mission systems and maintenance data.The NATO Frigate
Helicopter can be armed with anti-submarine torpedoes, air-to-surface
missiles and air-to-air missiles.The NFH is equipped with a tactical
forward-looking infrared system (FLIR) mounted in the nose, a magnetic
anomaly detector (MAD) and a sonar suite. The NFH is equipped with a 360°
surveillance radar mounted under the nose.
Sea King Mk.41
Twenty-two Sea Kings have been in service since 1975 with
MFG 5 at Kiel. Originally planned for the SAR only. the Sea Kings Mk.41s
have been progressively modified to equip them also for anti-surface and
The Sea Kings are now also active in tactical air transport roles for
the Navy, Air Force and the Army during peace time operations . They were
utilised for this role for the first time during the Gulf War. Due to be
replaced by the NH Nato Frigate Helicopter.